Negative Contractions to Speak Fluent English


Complete the following exercise by forming contractions when appropriate. There are many options for creating contractions; the most common relate to the words am, is, will, would, has, have and had, for example I am I’m, that is that’s, he will – he’ll, I would – I’d, she has – she’s, we have – we’ve and you had – you’d. The following exercise (after some additional notes) includes sentences which are grammatically correct and would be fine in written English, but in spoken English would sound too formal.

Contracted short form Original long form
aren’t are not
can’t cannot, can not
couldn’t could not
daren’t dare not
didn’t did not
doesn’t does not
don’t do not
hasn’t has not
haven’t have not
hadn’t had not
isn’t is not
mayn’t may not
mightn’t might not
mustn’t must not
needn’t need not
oughtn’t ought not
shan’t shall not
shouldn’t should not
wasn’t was not
weren’t were not
won’t will not
wouldn’t would not


Note that with the verb be, two negative forms are possible, for example:

  • we are notwe aren’t and we’re not

In questions, am not is contracted to aren’t, for example:

  • I’m late, aren’t I?

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